Image manipulation has attracted much research over the years due to the popularity and commercial importance of the task. In recent years, deep neural network methods have been proposed for many image manipulation tasks. A major issue with deep methods is the need to train on large amounts of data from the same distribution as the target image, whereas collecting datasets encompassing the entire long-tail of images is impossible. In this paper, we demonstrate that simply training a conditional adversarial generator on the single target image is sufficient for performing complex image manipulations. We find that the key for enabling single image training is extensive augmentation of the input image and provide a novel augmentation method. Our network learns to map between a primitive representation of the image (e.g. edges) to the image itself. At manipulation time, our generator allows for making general image changes by modifying the primitive input representation and mapping it through the network. We extensively evaluate our method and find that it provides remarkable performance.
The model was trained on a single training pair (first and second columns). The third column shows the inputs to the trained model at inference time. First row- (left) lifting the nose, (right) flipping the eyebrows. Second row- (left) adding a wheel, (right) conversion to a sports car. Third row- modifying the shape of the starfish
Results of our Super Primitive representation on challenging image manipulation tasks. left) the edge-image pair used to train our method. center) switching the positions between the two rightmost cars. right) removing the leftmost car and inpainting the background. In both cases our method was able to synthesize very attractive output images.
Several sample results from the Cityscapes dataset. We train each model on the segmentation-image pair on the left. We then use the models to predict the image, given the segmentation maps (second column from left). Our method is shown to perform very well on this task, generating novel configurations of people not seen in the training image.
 Ting-Chun Wang, Ming-Yu Liu, Jun-Yan Zhu, Andrew Tao, Jan Kautz, and Bryan Catanzaro, High-Resolution Image Synthesis and Semantic Manipulation with Conditional GANs, CVPR 2018.